Descriptive statistics quantitatively describe a collection of data and are useful to organize and summarize large data sets.
Exploratory data analysis uses data to suggest hypotheses to test on new data sets. It provides insight into the meaning of data such as the dependence of variables on a specific outcome.
Confirmatory data analysis tests hypotheses in order to justify conclusions.
Predictive Analysis uses current and historical data to make predictions regarding future events. See Forecasting & Predictive Modeling.